Alprazolam pharmachologic effect
Alprazolam - anxiolytic agent with some antidepressant, hypnotic and anticonvulsant effect. Alprazolam increases the inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system, increases the sensitivity of GABA receptors to this mediator by stimulating the benzodiazepine receptor supramolecular complex prescription GABA-benzodiazepine-hlorionofor. When receiving alprazolam patients have muscle relaxation. Alprazolam has some anticonvulsant activity
The drug Alprazolam has a mild sedative effect, in particular, makes it easier to fall asleep, it increases the duration of sleep, and also leads to a decrease in the number of nighttime awakenings. Hypnotic action alprazolam mechanism is based on its ability to inhibit cells in the reticular formation of the brain stem, and also reduce the impact of autonomic, motor and emotional stimuli affecting the process of falling asleep.
When receiving the drug Alprazolam in patients noted a decrease in the symptoms of anxiety and fear, as well as the reduction of emotional stress. Alprazolam is almost no effect on the cardiovascular and respiratory system in healthy patients.
Mode of action Alprazolam - anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, central. By binding to benzodiazepine and GABAergic receptors causes inhibition of the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, polysynaptic spinal reflexes. After intake of rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax achieved within 1-2 h. Plasma protein binding is 80%. It passes through GEB and placental barrier, enters the breast milk. It is metabolized in the liver. T1 / 2 -. 16 hours is derived mainly kidneys. Re-appointment with an interval of at least 8-12 hours can lead to accumulation.
Used as an anxiolytic and antidepressant weak, for the treatment of non-psychotic disorders:
- Anxiety disorders and neuroses with anxiety, stress, anxiety, irritability, sleep disturbance, somatic disorders;
- Mixed anxiety and depression;
- Neurotic reactive depressive states associated with decreased mood, loss of interest in surroundings, anxiety, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, changes in body weight, somatic disorders;
- Anxiety, mixed anxiety-depression and neurotic depression, developed on the background of somatic diseases;
- Panic disorder (with or without phobic symptoms), panic attacks and phobias with agoraphobia.
- Neurosis and psychopathy, accompanied by a sense of unease and anxiety;
- Reactive depression (including on the background of systemic diseases); insomnia, withdrawal syndrome (in patients with alcoholism and drug addiction).
Alprazolam cautions when receiving
In the course of treatment is strictly prohibited the use of alcohol; Avoid activities that require attention, speed of mental and motor responses.
Efficacy and safety of use in patients under the age of 18 years have not been established.
Patients not taking psychotropic drugs earlier, "responsible" for the drug at lower doses compared to patients taking antidepressants, anxiolytics or suffering from alcoholism.
When endogenous depression alprazolam can be used in combination with antidepressants.
Abolition of the drug alprazolam should be carried out gradually. It is recommended to reduce the dose to 500 mg in the reception is not more than three times a day. In some cases, a slower elimination of the drug. Sudden discontinuation of alprazolam may lead to a withdrawal syndrome that manifests itself in the form of insomnia, sweating, seizures, tremors and spasms of skeletal muscles.
Enhances the effect of alcohol, neuroleptics and hypnotics, narcotic analgesics, central muscle relaxants. Increases concentration of imipramine in the serum.
Conditions and terms of Alprazolam should be protected from exposure to sunlight place, as well as children, with an air temperature of not more than 25 - 30 ° C. The shelf life of the drug Alprazolam is about a period of 4 - 5 years from date of manufacture.
Symptoms overdose alprazolam: drowsiness, confusion, deterioration of motor coordination, reduced reflexes, nystagmus, speech disorder, lowering blood pressure, the development of coma.
Treatment overdose alprazolam: gastric lavage, activated charcoal, symptomatic therapy aimed at maintaining breathing and blood pressure; in a hospital - the introduction of flumazenil.
Alprazolam is contraindicated when used:
- Severe depression;
- Angle-closure glaucoma;
- Acute poisoning with alcohol, drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as opioid analgesics;
- Chronic obstructive respiratory diseases with early signs of respiratory insufficiency; myasthenia gravis;
- Acute respiratory failure;
- Hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines or other components of alprazolam.
Medications which contain a substance Alprazolam
|1||Xanax||PFIZER EUROPE MA EEIG.|
|2||Xanax XR||PHARMACIA AND UPJOHN.|
|3||Alprazolam LPH||LABORMED PHARMA SA.|
|4||Alprazolam ATB||ANTIBIOTICE SA.|
|5||Anxiar||GEDEON RICHTER ROMANIA SA.|
|6||Niravam||JAZZ PHARMACEUTICALS PLC.|
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